What is the secret Amber Acid has?
Cellular processes, which enliven everything
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins acquired with food split into simple compounds, i.e. glucose, glycerin, fatty acids and amino acids, which during the reactions of metabolism, running at intracellular level, turns to organic acids and later oxidize to carbon dioxide and water. Glucose and glycerin at the beginning oxidizes an aerobically, i.e. without participation of oxygen, during enzymatic reactions, called glycolysis.
During such situations, when delivery of oxygen is insufficient in order to provide energy for functional load (work) activation of anaerobic glycolysis occurs and end product of glycolysis, i.e. lactic acid (lactate) accumulates within the tissues. All live cells no matter cells of animal or plant, mushroom or germs, contains special bodies few microns in diameter called Mitochondrion. Amber Acid is basically produced within Mitochondrion and applied for further reactions.
Under sufficient supply of oxygen all organic acids burn within special cellular bodies Mitochondrion, which play role of the most important energy source. Accumulation is being performed within respiratory chain, poly enzyme complex, situated in the membrane of Mitochondrion.
Energy balance at the extent of cells
The main part of sun energy, included in chemical relations used by us with food, is being released by oxidation of organic acids during cyclical serial reactions, discovered by Sir Hans Krebs. Any material of initial source (proteins, fats or carbohydrates) everyone turn into organic acids of Krebs cycle.
Krebs cycle, respiratory chain and accumulation system are situated within Mitochondrions. Mitochondrions are called energy stations of the cell. Namely within Mitochondrions burning of various types of materials is likely to occur. Mitochondrions supply ATP as universal fuel for energy for all types of activity and synthesis within human tissues. Quality and quantity of Mitochondrions, their status of functionality, interaction with glycolysis and the system of oxygen supply determine range of cell’s functional activity and appropriate tissues.
Involvement of Amber Acid in energy balance
During the simple serial reaction in Mitochondrion in Krebs cycle Amber Acid is one of the intermediate products. As shown by the research results of M.N. Kondrasheva, professor of the Institute of theoretical and experimental biophysics of Russian Scientific Academy, energy capability of the process of ATP synthesis under oxidation of Amber Acid is significantly higher when under oxidation of any other substrate. Due to this reason a lot of energy-dependant, i.e. energy using processes, e.g. accumulation of calcium ions and supply of biosynthesis with hydrogen even in insulated Mitochondrion are capable of occurring only under oxidation of Amber Acid. Investigations of M.N. Kondrasheva followers have proved out that additional ways of production of Amber Acid exist in nature and by necessity are capable of activating. In particular such additional “shot” of Amber Acid with health person occurs under intensive work and during restoration after loads, when necessity to produce ATP is especially high.
Not only high generating capability of oxidation of Amber Acid force to take its priority over other substrates. The reason is that under any intensive load so called working hypoxia is being developed, when use of oxygen during reactions of energy balance exceeds capabilities of its providing for cells. Practically under all diseases of cardio-vascular system, lungs, a lot of blood disorders, intoxication, after use of alcohol and various pharmaceuticals either provision or using of oxygen is being disturbed. In other words, this is formation of hypoxia.
In the event of hypoxia respiratory chain of Mitochondrion can not intake hydrogen from any other substrate except Amber Acid. Namely under oxidation of Amber Acid hydrogen gets into significantly lower part of respiratory chain. Under such situation in the present part even under deep hypoxia capability to accept hydrogen is preserved. In this case oxidation of Amber Acid in Mitochondrion remains one of few ATP sources. Additional supply of Amber Acid can significantly contribute to vital activity of human body.
Amber Acid, which is being developed in Mitochondrion in the same place burns immediately, therefore instant stationary concentration of Amber Acid available in tissues is not exceeding 10-20 mg of the tissue mass and as a rule remains within Mitochondrion. Out of Mitochondrion and out of cell Amber Acid is practically unavailable. Out of Mitochondrion it appears during heavy anaerobiosis (total absence of oxygen) or under deep hypoxia of any part of a tissue.
The appearance of additional amber acid
Preceptorial systems of human body appearance of Amber Acid in blood circulation understand as signal, indicating that some part of human body suffers from lack of energy resources and oxygen hunger. Accordingly human body reacts towards the present signal involving shifts of neuroendocrinal and hormonal regulation, improvement of peripheral blood circulation, intensification of cardial beat, facilitation of oxygen delivery with the help of oxyhemoglobin and other physiological and biochemical compensatory reactions. These are reactions of mobilization of energy balance. And they are likely to occur not as response towards really impending energy deficiency, but as signal that possibly there is a place for it.
Being absolutely harmless and providing positive effect even under small amounts Amber Acid may be considered as useful nutrition supplement. Use of such supplements contributes to normalization of human body’s state.